Mogao Caves are the nation key cultural relicpreservation organ, isnamed Thousand Buddhas Cave, is situated west the GansuCorridor endDunhuang, is world famous by the fine mural and the cast.Itsbeginning constructs at 16 countries' former Qin times, has beenthroughrepeatedly 16 countries, the Northern Dynasty, Sui, Tang, fivegenerations,Tangut , the Yuan and so on all previous dynastiesconstructing, forms the hugescale, existing cavern 735, the mural45,000 square meter, argillaceous paintedsculpture 2,415, are in theworld the extant scale is biggest, the contentrichest Buddhism artplace. Since the modern times had discovered the Buddhistscriptureshole, in had 50,000 ancient times cultural relics, and grewspeciallyto study the Buddhist scriptures hole ancient book and Dunhuangartdiscipline - Dunhuang studies. But since Mogao Caves receive many people inthe modern times for thedamage, the cultural relic massively drain, itsintegrity wasseriously destroyed. In 1961, Mogao Caves are announced bythePeople's Republic of China State Council one of for first batch ofnationalkey cultural relic preservation organs. In 1987, Mogao Cavesare listed as theworld culture inheritance.
Mogao Caves are located southeast the ChineseGansu Province Dunhuang east 25 kilometer place Mt. Mingsha on the foothillcliff, first near dawdle Quan River, face east, north and south length 1680meters, height 50 meters.Cavern distribution height scattered about, row afterrow, about most has five.Its beginning constructs at 16 country times,"the Li Obliging Repairs Mogao Caves Niche for a statue of Buddha Tablet"according to Tang the record.
Former Qin establishes a reign title for twoyears （366 years）, the Buddhist priest happy goes via thismountain, sees the golden light sparkle suddenly, if presently ten thousandBuddha, therefore then opened cutting on the dike the first cavern.Hereafterthe law good Zen master and so on continues in this to construct the hole torepair the imperial sacrifices, is called the desert high hole, Italy is thedesert high place.Because later generation desert and not general, then renamesas Mogao Caves.When Northern Wei Dynasty, Western Wei Dynasty and Northern ZhouDynasty, the ruler respects and believes in Buddhism, the rock caveconstruction has the nobility support, the development is quick.The Sui andTang dynasties time, along with Silk Road prosperity, Mogao Caves isprosperous, when Wu Zetian has cavern thousand.After the Anlushan Rebellion,Dunhuang successively and turns over to the troops fighting in a good cause byTurfan to seize, but the statuary activity too greatly has not beenaffected.The Northern Song Dynasty, the tangut and the Yuan Dynasty, MogaoCaves gradually hasten the decline, only repaired the previous dynasty holeroom primarily, newly built extremely few.After Yuan Dynasty, along with SilkRoad abandoning, Mogao Caves also stopped constructing and is neglectedgradually in common people's field of vision.After clear Kanghsi 40 years （in 1701）,here only then again manner attention.The modern times, people usual name it “Thousand Buddhas Cave.
The Mogao Caves extant Northern Wei Dynasty toYuan cavern 735, divides into the north and south two areas.South the area isMogao Caves' main body, is engaged in the religious activities for the clergythe place, some 487 caverns, have the mural or make an idol.North the area has248 caverns, in which only then 5 existence murals or makes an idol,But afterother all is the clergy leads a pious life the place which, the housing and thedeath buries, has life facilities and so on the adobe bed, stove kang, flue,niche, desk lamp.Two area total 492 cavern existence mural and makes an idol,has the mural 45,000 square meter, the argillaceous painted sculpture 2415,Tang Songmu constructs cliff eave 5, as well as several thousand lotus flowerpillars, spread out on the floor the decorative brick and so on.
TheOutline of Xinjiang Tourism Resources
Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region covers anarea of 1.66 million square Kilometers, with a population of 17 million. It hasvery rich tourism resources and has great potential of developing tourismindustry.
Xinjiang has rich tourism resources, vast bothin quantity and variety, with high levels, large capacities and completefunctions, thus promising a good prospect. In Xinjiang, one finds all thedriest, hottest and coldest places in China. It also has China's longestcontinental river, lowest lowland, largest inland lake and largest desert. Onecan see in Xinjiang wold famous Yadan landforms, stone mushrooms formed by winderosion, caves, limestone towers, as well as natural spectacular views asdesert images and ringing sand. In addition, Xinjiang has many rare desertanimals and plants.
The land of Xinjiang is very different in it'saltitude, from the Turpan Aiding lake, the world's lowest land second only tothe Dead sea in Jorkan, to the Qiao geli peak, the world's highest mountainsecond only to the Everest, with the difference between the two places being8765 meters! With such a widely different natural views, Xinjiang is reputed asa place of "four seasons in a single mount ain and two climates withindozens of miles". Xingjiang's mountain area accounts for 4490 of its totalarea. It has numerous continent rivers and mountain lakes, along with countlesshot springs, air fountains, and glaciers. On the top of a mountain, there comeclearly into view desert oases, hill in wilderness, grass land and forest, snowcovered mountains, lakes and basins, and so on. The vast stretches of grasslandare covered with colourful wild flowers, cattle and sheep, as well aspicturesque landscapes.
The historical tourist resources in Xinjiangboast unique charm. The Silk Road across the territory is famous worldwide.There are 236 sites in Xinjiang that are worth studying as historical, art orscientific legacies. They include ancient cultural ruins, ancient tombs,ancient caves and temples such as the Thousand-Buddha Cave, stone carvings, artmodern memorials, 10 of which have been rated as key national cultural relicsunder protection. There are also 16 thousand-Buddha cave sites, with more than550 caves being fundamentally intact. Beside, there are several thousandcultural relics and 22 natural reserves. The discovery of Altay corridor ofrock paintings, dinosaur fossils in Junggar and monstrous lizard has drawnattention of experts and scholars both at home and abroad.
Xinjiang is a multi-national region, the dailylife style, culture and art folk custom and festivals of all nationalities havestrong local national characteristics. Minority nationalities since ancient timeare famous for their singing and dancing and these unique songs and dances aremost attractive tourism resources of Xinjiang. Xinjing has enjoyed the fame ofhometown of fruits and melons, home town of horses, country of gold and jadeand kingdom of carpet from ancient time. These are the reasons why Xinjiangbeing loved so much by so many tourists. Xinjiang has long boundary lines andmany ports, is the province bordered with most neighbouring countries, longestboundary lines, most land ports opened to the outside, and best land port forinbound tour in China. Xinjiang keeps good relationship with central and westAsia peoples, so it is very attractive for tourists both from home and abroad.
With a later start, Xinjiang's tourism hasdeveloped rapidly; it has established their industry position through more thantwenty years development.
The total investment of the region is 4.426billion yuan within twenty years, among which 0.67 billion yuan were investedfrom outside.
Tourism infrastructure is approachingperfection day by day. Transportation and communication facilities constructionhave been greatly developed, Turpan-Urumqi- Dahuanshan highway. Urumqi-kuitunhighway, south Xinjiang Railway projects have been finished, Railway passengertransportation has already opened direct routes to Beijing, Shanghai,Lianyungang, Jinan, Chengdu, Zhengzhou and xi'an from Uru mqi, two regionalroutes and one international route were being opened. The regional highwaytransportation has been connected to the network. The civil air company has 21middle and long distance passenger airplanes major by Boeing series, with 12airports, opened 61 flight routes. There have been 6400 kilometers long opticalfiber cables in operation in Xinjiang, communicating 98% prefectures, areas,cities and counties, The infrastructure of Xinjiang can meet the needs of greatdevelopment of tourism.
Tianjin （Jin for short）is a municipality direct under the Central Government, as well as an openingcity. It's situated in the eastern part of the North China Plain, covering anarea of 11,300 square km. and with a population of six million.
It has a semi-humid continental climate in thewarm Temperate Zone. With an annual average temperature of 12 degreescentigrade, and rainfall of 590 millimeters, it has 220 frost-free days peryear. It's rich in petroleum, natural gas and sea salt along the coastal area.
As one of China's biggest industrial centers,Tianjin has built up an all-round industrial system with machinery,electronics, textiles, chemicals, metallurgy, foodstuff etc. as its mainstays.The production on a fairly large scale, of arts and crafts like hand-madecarpets, Yangliuqing's New Year Pictures printed from an engraved wood plate,Zhang's painted clay figurines, kites etc. holds an important position in thecountry. Tianjin has already achieved successes in the operation of itsEconomic and Technological Development Zone in the northeastern part of TangguDistrict, covering an area of 33 square km.
Tianjin is one of the most prosperous businessareas as well as a distribution center for goods and materials in North China.
It's also a key hub of land and seacommunications. Its port consisting of Tianjin, Tanggu and Xingang Harbours isan important Chinese Sea port, serving as the most convenient sea outlet forBeijing, North China and Northwest. The port accessible to ocean freighters often thousand tons class has opened more than 20 ocean shipping routes. Tianjinhas a well-developed road transport network, regular air-service to over 30cities throughout the country, and inland water shipping, in addition to thepipelines for oil transport.
Tianjin is a famous historical city. The bestknown scenic spots and historical sites include Ning Garden, Tianhou Temple （Temple of Heavenly Empress）, Dule Temple in Ji county, The Great Wall atthe Huangya Pass, the Panshan scenery area etc.
Efforts are being made to develop Tianjinprimarily into a financial center in North China, an international commercialcity and a free port.
Jimei isa suburb of Xiamen City connected to xiamen Island by a 2,212-metre longgranite causeway. Jimei is also the residence of Mr. Tan Kah-kee, a famousoverseas Chinese philanthropist. Encircled by the sea on three sides, the townis known for its magnificent buildings combining western and oriental stylesand picture-postcard sceneries. As a tourist site, Jimei has the followingattractions to offer: Jimei School Village, Aoyuan （Turtle Garden）,Returnees' Hall, Xiamen Bridge and Wanbao Hill Sightseeing Farms.
Jimei School Village
Jimei School Village is a general name for allschools and cultural institutions here. It was built by Mr.Tan Kah-kee in 1913.After decades of development, the village now covers a floor space area of over100,000 square kilometers and there are more than 10,000 students in it. Thehigher learning institutions are Xiamen Aquatic Products College, JimeiNavigation College, and Jimei Finance and Economy Institute and BusinessAdministration College, etc. There are also secondary specialized schools,middle schools, primary schools, kindergartens and nurseries schools in thevillage. In addition to the schools metioned above, one may find hereauditoriums, swimming pools, stadiums, cinemas, hospitals and navigation clubs.They are rare through out the country for their large scales and goodfacilitation.
Jimei School Village, blending the Chinesearchitectural style with western one, has become a symbol of Jimei. Among thebuildings of unique style are Daonan Lou in Jimen Middle School, Nanxun Lou inOverseas Chinese School and the Teaching Building of Navigation College. Infront of the Daonan Lou is the Drangon Boat Pond, 800 meters long and 300meters wide. Around it are seven pavilions of different styles, with curvedeaves and carved pillars. They are called "Seven Stars Falling onto theGround". In the middle of the pond stand two pavilions designed by Mr.TanKah-kee, which are named "Lonely Star Accompanying the moon". Everyyear, during the Dragon Boat Festival, the dragon boat racing is held in thepond with shining ripples and melodious Nanqu （southFujian Opera） accompanied by drumbeats. Severalinternational dragon boat racings have been held here and attracted groups oftourists at home and abroad.
Turtle Garden was constructed in 1950 by Mr.Tan Kah- Kee on the former site of "Turtle Head Palace". In thecentre of the garden is the Jimei Liberation Monument with an inscription byMao Zedong on the front and a tablet record written by Mr.Tan Kah-Kee on theback. The stone foundation of the monument consists of two stages. The lowerstage has eight steps, signifying the eight-year Anti- Japanese War; the upperstage is composed of three steps, symbolizing the three year Liberation War. Theyare telling the later generations that victories were hard- won and thereforeshould be cherished. The foundation of the monument is surrounded by gray jadecarvings and relief sculptures polished with great care, embodying aconcentrated reflection of exquisite workmanship and a unique style of southFujian stone carving art.
Walled by white stones and roofed with greentiles, the Returnees' Hall covering an area of 4,000 square metres is a typicalsample of south fujian constructions. As the former residence of Mr. TanKah-kee, the building is marked by Mr. Tan's bronze standing statue in front.
At the two wings of the residence, exhibitionhalls were built to display Mr.Tan Kah-kee's life and achievements. Theexhibition halls were in a 3-storey building with an area of 800 square meters.Articles displayed include pictures, illustrations, charts, material objects,some rare cultural relics and the only left book of "Family Tree of Tan'sin Jimei.“ These exhibits vividly presentingto the audience the whole life of Mr.Tan Kah-kee as the great leader of thepatriotic overseas Chinese. It has become a certain destination for visitors toXiamen from home and abroad.
The principal part was completed in April1991. In May of the same year, the bridge was open to test traffic. ChinesePresident Jiang Zemin not only inscribed the four-character title of the bridge"Xia Men Da Qiao" for it, but also came in person to cut the ribbonto inaugurate the bridge to traffic.
Consisting of the main bridge body, JimeiCrossroads, Gaoqi Bridge Approach and the automatic managing system, XiamenBridge is also the first cross-strait bridge in China. The main bridge body is2,070 metres long and 23.5 metres wide. The non-stop Jimei Crossroads is madeup of seven circuits. The 855-metre-long and 23.5-metre-wide Gaoqi BridgeApproach was built by the standard of the first class highroad.
Wanbao Hill Sightseeing Farm
Located by the side of Guankouken inner roadof No.324 national highway in Jimei District, the Wanbao Hill Sightseeing Farmcovers an area of 500 mu. As the field is not very high, tourists can easilyget into the orchard to look around. All year around fruit trees are planted inthe garden for picking and tasting by the tourists in any month. There arelichee, longan, citrus fruits, carambola, persimmon, mango, strawberry,peaches, plums and more.
The farm is also equipped with a fishingpound, barbecue areas, camping areas, farming areas, refreshment rooms and arestaurant for customers' convenience and to meet their special interests.Further more, a holiday villa within the farm can provide lodging and all kindsof entertainments.